19 December 2014

One Ton Cup 1972

The 1972 One Ton Cup was held in Sydney, and was contested by 15 yachts representing nine countries. Designs from the Sparkman & Stephens were well represented, with no less than ten yachts from this famous design office, two from US designer Dick Carter, and one each from Joubert, Rodgers and Gary Mull. 

Wai Aniwa training in blustery conditions on Auckland Harbour, 1972
With the contest being held just across the Tasman, and with a number of yachts still available following the 1971 series hosted in Auckland, three yachts were selected to represent New Zealand. No new yachts were launched, but Chris Bouzaid skippered his 1971 'Mk II IOR' Carter design, Wai Aniwa to win the trials, finishing with a 6/2/1/1/1 series. After her disappointing fifth place in the 1971 One Ton Cup, Bouzaid had set out to modify and improve Wai Aniwa under the new Mk III rule - her mast was increased in height by 0.6 metres, her genoas limited to 150% LP and 680 kg of ballast was added. The changes had earlier been proven when she led New Zealand to victory in the 1971 Southern Cross Cup, where she finished as top individual yacht, ably supported by team-mates Pathfinder and Runaway. In fact, the team finished with an unprecedented, and unrepeated, 1st, 2nd and 3rd in the Sydney-Hobart classic to secure the series. 

Pathfinder sailing in the New Zealand trials
Wai Aniwa's original pivoting keel had caused some issues, turning 90 degrees in one practice race and bringing the yacht to a shuddering halt, and was fixed in place before the New Zealand One Ton Cup trials, and a larger mainsail was fitted (requiring a longer boom). 
Wai Aniwa during New Zealand trials
The One Ton Cup team was completed by Pathfinder (Roy Dickson), runner up in the trials (4/1/2/2/3), and Young Nick, skippered by Peter Mulgrew, was third (1/3/4/3/5). Mulgrew's previous yacht, the diminutive Townson 32 Moonlight, finished sixth. The fourth placed yacht, Gil Hedges' Escapade, was chartered by an English team, skippered by Rodney Hill.
Ydra in winning form during Cowes Week 1972
Ydra (pronounced "Ee-dra", and named after a Greek Island) was the pre-series favourite. She was the latest design from Dick Carter, based on the Mk III version of the IOR that had been formulated to reduce the emphasis on beam and encourage more depth amidships. She was constructed in aluminium and built in Germany by Abeking & Rasmussen. Her clean flush decks gave her an appearance well in advance of all her rivals.Carter commented at the time that particular emphasis was placed on combining upwind capabilities with downwind performance. In order to achieve strong light air performance across all points of sail, Carter specified a large sail plan, with maximum emphasis on a large foretriangle, with a number one genoa programmed for 160% LP.

Profile and general arrangement plan of Dick Carter's Ydra
  A most notable feature of Ydra was the emphasis on operation efficiency. This included the provision for spinnaker poles to be stowed in tubes below deck, with opening ports on the for'ard side of the cabin trunk, to enable faster handling of the pole. The foreguy was permanently attached to further maximise handling speed. Carter noted that there was also great satisfaction in eliminating poles from the deck, both from an operational and aesthetic viewpoint. Another interesting development was the use of a solid vang, which allowed micrometer adjustment allowing very accurate control of the mainsail leech.


In her first series, the 1972 Cowes Week, and skippered by 1968 Cup winner Hans Bielken, she was completely dominant, taking six firsts and a third. She also had to carry a DSQ for being over the line early in one race, and a DNF after a collision with a larger yacht). She trained for one more month in Germany, before being shipped to Australia. Yachting journalist Jack Knights proclaimed Ydra to be the fastest One Tonner in the world and all those that saw her perform in that regatta fully expected a great performance in the Cup. 

The 1972 One Ton Cup consisted of five races, as was normal for these level rating events, including a medium offshore (1.5 points) and a long offshore (2x points), and a winning campaign could not afford a poor result in the longer races. What was not typical was that the offshore races were aligned along the coastline south of Sydney. As a result, navigation was not a major factor as nearly all the racing took place within sight of land, and visual bearings were the order the day. The main tactical consideration was to determine what the Southerly Set was doing (speed and direction).

The 1972 One Ton Cup fleet assembled in Sydney, Australia
In the first race Ydra sailed away at the start, demonstrating superior windward ability to such an extent that after five miles in light winds she was over two minutes ahead which she extended to 12 minutes by the finish.  However, in the long offshore she stripped her forestay turnbuckle and this put her out of contention for Cup honours, and she finished with results of 1/2/2/DNF/1. Wai Aniwa sailed a conservative series, and the result came down to the final ocean race. Wai Aniwa and Australian yacht Pilgrim (the ex-Italian yacht and S&S design Kerkyra IV) raced neck and neck throughout the race, Bouzaid and his crew finally leading Pilgrim into Sydney Harbour by seven minutes to reclaim the One Ton Cup for New Zealand.
Wai Aniwa finishes one of the ocean races in tight reaching conditions
So Wai Aniwa won the series with placings of 3/4/3/1/4, Pilgrim was second (2/1/7/2/7) and Pathfinder was third (8/3/1/4/10).

Second placed Pilgrim (Australia)
Wai Aniwa was a two year old design, to the Mk II version of the rule, but such was Chris Bouzaid's proficiency as a sailmaker, tuner and skipper of an offshore yacht, that it was difficult to draw a conclusion that Wai Aniwa's win marked a victory of Mk II designs over the first attempts of Carter and S&S at Mk III designs. Although Wai Aniwa won the series, Ydra was considered the faster boat, and also benefited from having a sail-maker at the helm, Hans Beilken. 

Ydra with spinnaker and big staysail set
However, it was apparent that Carter and S&S were designing quite different boats for Mk III than their earlier efforts under Mk II. This could be seen in the design contrast between Wai Aniwa and Ydra. Wai Aniwa was rounded for'ard with dish-like midship sections and slack bilges. A long flat run hull finished in a deep bustle and skeg with the rudder faired in. Ydra was slab sided in her for'ard sections, and was noticeably beamy, 0.3 metres wider than Wai Aniwa

The extreme beam of Ydra is evident in this photo
The Mk III version of the IOR had come about as a result of criticism, particularly in the US, of Mk II, the original version of the rule issued in 1970. The most publicised change inherent in Mk III was in the depth formula (D), and it was claimed that the extra depth measurements and loading of the inboard depth measurement in particular (MDI) would curb the tendency to extreme beam which was becoming evident. 

The differences between Wai Aniwa (solid line) and Ydra (dashed line)
It was therefore interesting to find that the two newest designs in the fleet, and the only ones designed to Mk III (Ydra and the S&S Columbine) were about a foot wider than the beamiest yacht in the 1971 contest, the S&S Kerkyra IV

Ydra sail plan
The trend to extreme beam was even more startling, given that the designers of these new boats were both involved in the original drafting of the IOR. It was apparent that the new depth measurements were not sufficiently attractive to encourage the design of narrower, deeper yachts, and this was considered disappointing at the time, as beamier yachts were viewed as being difficult to handle, especially downwind. One positive development was that, based on Ydra and Columbine, the stern buttock lines could be made lower and wider under Mk III without undue penalty. 

In terms of sail plans, there was no apparent move towards larger mainsails, and only Wai Aniwa had taken extra mainsail area under Mk III. Most other mainsails were very close to the minimum permissible area, but the aspect ratios of foretriangles were slightly higher than in 1971. 

The next competition for the One Ton Cup would be held in 1973 in Sardinia, where Ydra would herself be surpassed, but once again the series would prove that having the fastest yacht was only one part of a winning campaign...



15 December 2014

Kiwi 24 (Holland Quarter Tonner)

The following photographs are of the Holland designed "Kiwi 24" Fat Cat. The Kiwi 24 was a stock Quarter Ton design. This sequence of photos were taken by Tad Belknap during a local race on Lake Ray Hubbard (Dallas, Texas) while he and Gary Carlin were evaluating a stern extension on a near sistership Business Machine. Belknap and Carlin had started Kiwi Boats, and had developed the use of space-frame construction, firstly in Business Machine and later on the famous Holland 40 Imp.

Fat Cat begins a roll to windward (photo courtesy Tad Belknap)
Above and below, Fat Cat rolls further to windward and crash gybes (photos courtesy Tad Belknap)


The stern extension to Business Machine was judged to be a success (photo at right on the same day), and she went on to finish second in the 1976 Quarter Ton Cup, held in Corpus Christi (won by the Whiting design Magic Bus). The photos below show Business Machine under construction (and the fitting of the internal space frame), the new stern extension and while sailing in the 1976 Quarter Ton Cup.

Business Machine under construction (photo courtesy Tad Belknap)



12 December 2014

New Zealand Endeavour (Farr Maxi)

New Zealand Endeavour (Farr design no.274) was Grant Dalton's entry in the 1993/94 Whitbread Round the World Yacht Race, a successor to Dalton's previous maxi, Fisher & Paykel. New Zealand Endeavour and her near sisterships Merit and La Poste (design no. 278) were born of an extensive research and development exercise by the Farr office. When planning for the boats began in early 1991 it was expected that the costs of that research would be spread over five programmes. However, as global economic conditions declined at that time, research was scaled back, although it remained very thorough, covering weather analysis, tank testing of 14 hull variants, velocity prediction development, appendage development, rig analysis and construction optimisation.

This Maxi class of 1993 took their lead from Steinlager 2, Peter Blake's all conquering ketch from the 1989-90 edition of the race (design no. 190). The new boats were 25.9m long, only slightly longer than Steinlager 2, but with a shorter waterline and much lighter in displacement (27,660kg compared to 35,150kg), with less rated sail area and similar rated beam (it is interesting to compare these displacement figures with the less constrained design of the 1995 ILC maxi Sayonara, of 24,400kg). Rated sail area was traded away to achieve a long light hull, while the rigs were developed to produce more power for their rated area. Appendage drag was drastically reduced through the use of smaller keel foils married to large bulbs, and more slippery hull sections ensured less drag for an equivalent stability and IOR rating.

Profile and deck plan for New Zealand Endeavour (Farr Yacht Design)

The bow profile was a modern interpretation of the clipper bow, having the function of a bowsprit but without the rule complications that use of a bowsprit might entail, a conservative position adopted as one of the lessons from the failed New Zealand America's Cup campaign in 1992. 

New Zealand Endeavour is turned over at the Marten Marine yard - the square shape in the keel is the location of the internal ballast slab
The yacht was constructed by Marten Marine and was state of the art - the hull being a complex layup of carbon fibre laminate of five outside and three inside skins, laid on top of three Kevlar skins, which in turn were sandwiched around a 25mm core of Nomex honeycomb and then cured at 80 degrees. More weight gains were achieved in her deck gear - for example the winches were moulded from carbon fibre and milled from titanium and aluminium. The total weight of the winch package was 300kg, compared to 500kg on Fisher & Paykel.

Early trials in the Hauraki Gulf, with main gennaker and mizzen staysail set
Despite carrying less sail, Farr's new 1993 designs were faster in light airs and significantly faster in moderate and strong downwind conditions due to the lower displacement and high effective length. Although New Zealand Endeavour was oriented towards heavier air than her two sisterships (less sail and slightly less displacement), Dalton was keen to ensure that the boat would still be competitive in the light, as a result of losses in these conditions incurred against Steinlager 2 during the 1989 race aboard his previous Fisher & Paykel. The design approach for New Zealand Endeavour also traded off some upwind performance in preference to reaching and downwind speed, but notwithstanding the crew were impressed with her upwind pace in early trials. 


This aerial view shows the large separation between the main and mizzen rigs

New Zealand Endeavour slices upwind in light-moderate conditions in early trials - the clipper bow is a notable feature in this photo. The local Lidgard loft provided Endeavour's working sail wardrobe.
The development of the rig was an interesting area, with analysis of different options of rig separation and sail area distribution leading to a high aspect ratio arrangement for both the mizzen and the main, with taller mizzen masts than the 1989 generation, and substantially larger separation between the rigs. This increased separation resulted in smaller mizzen staysails, but greater efficiency was achieved due to the increased space in which they could be set. 

The mizzen boom extended well past the transom

The use of a ketch rig was a result of the predominance of reaching conditions typically experienced on the Whitbread course, but also because the sail area of the mizzen was treated 'cheaply' under the IOR. Indeed, the official book of the Endeavour campaign records that an even larger mizzen was contemplated, with a mizzen mast of similar height to the main mast, but engineering challenges saw the height of this rig 'moderated' to just 2 metres shorter.

New Zealand Endeavour powers upwind in fresh conditions during her New Zealand trials
The overall impression was that of a more extreme version of Steinlager 2, with a more pronounced and elongated overhang, married to her unusual clipper bow, and a main mast set for'ard and her mizzen boom extending well past her transom. Her sail plan presented an unusual arrangement of small foresails and spinnakers, offset by large gennaker staysails. She was, to all intents and purposes, the ultimate expression of an offshore maxi at the very end of the IOR era.

The official launch of New Zealand Endeavour in Wellington Harbour, November 1992
New Zealand Endeavour was officially launched amongst much fanfare in Wellington Harbour in November 1992, reflecting the corporate location of her principal sponsors, in front of a crowd of more than 30,000 - a thunderous fireworks display lit up the harbour in a ceremony broadcast on prime time TV. 

New Zealand Endeavour power reaching and flying one of her Banks' gennakers
Any early passage to Wellington for the launching revealed the big advantage in the design of her rig, achieving high average speeds over long periods in five-sail reaching conditions. Dalton commented at the time that the performance gain was largely due to the use of assymetric spinnakers, by then permitted under the IOR rules, as amended for the Whitbread maxis, and which were more stable and could be carried closer to the wind.


Her first big test was the 1992 Sydney-Hobart race, which she passed with flying colours, taking line honours in convincing fashion. She was then shipped to Europe to take part in the UAP Round Europe race and the 1993 Fastnet race. New Zealand Endeavour came up against her maxi competition in the Round Europe (photo right) - Merit Cup and La Poste - where she rounded out the winner, despite finding some chinks in her light air speed due to some sails being off the pace and the boat being optimised for heavier winds.  

Just before the Round Europe race, some delamination was discovered in the bow sections and these were required to be repaired before the Fastnet race, resulting in some major surgery. During this refit new rigs, designed and built by Southern Spars, were stepped, some 25kg lighter than the originals. A new lighter keel was also fitted (500kg) - being smaller in size it also reduced underwater drag. The changes proved successful, and New Zealand Endeavour was the best of the maxis in the Fastnet race, but they lost out to the smaller Whitbread 60s that were better suited to the fresh upwind conditions in the first half of the race.

New Zealand Endeavour at the start of the third leg from Fremantle to Auckland (8 January 1994)

The performance of New Zealand Endeavour in the Whitbread race is well documented - she won the first leg to Punta del Este, lost the top half of her mizzen mast on the leg to Perth, but bounced back to win the third leg to Auckland and the fourth leg to Punta del Este. She finished with the fastest elapsed time of 120 days and five hours, to give Dalton and his crew the coveted Whitbread trophy. Her time was nine hours faster than Yamaha, the first to finish of the new Whitbread 60 class, and some eight days faster than Steinlager 2's record breaking performance four years prior. Merit Cup finished third, 21 hours behind New Zealand Endeavour.

New Zealand Endeavour sails out of the inner Hauraki Gulf at the boisterous start of the fourth leg (19 February 1994)
At full power with spinnaker and her big mizzen gennaker set
New Zealand Endeavour has been recently listed for sale. She is now lying in Portoferraio, Elba Island in Italy. She has sailed very little in the last six years, apart from an Atlantic crossing in 2008, although she received some extensive refit work before undertaking that crossing.




25 November 2014

Flirt of Paget - sailing again

After an incredible five year restoration, Flirt of Paget, a Holland 40ft ex-Admiral's Cupper (ex-New Zealand yacht Spritzer) has been relaunched during the past European summer. Congratulations to Lars Klingstrom who has applied an incredible level of workmanship to this project. That work can be seen in Lars' updates through Sailing Anarchy, and on the Swedish website blur.se. The earlier history of Flirt can be seen here.

Flirt of Paget's kauri timber topsides are gleaming after a painstaking restoration effort

14 November 2014

Indulgence V (Andrieu Three-Quarter Tonner)

The Daniel Andrieu designed Three-Quarter Tonner Indulgence V was another in a long line of yachts to the same name owned by British yachtsman Graham Walker. Andrieu designs were typically very attractive yachts, and Indulgence was no exception, featuring a slightly curved sheer, rounded transom line and a distinctive cabin window. Her French design origins were complemented by her construction, carried out to a very high standard by B&B, located in Trinite-sur-Mer.

Indulgence was designed and built for 1986 Three-Quarter Ton Cup (24.5ft IOR), which was organised by the RORC and raced in Torbay, and which she rounded out as winner, albeit by a close margin. She was skippered by Eddy Warden Owen, one of the British 12-metre helmsmen of the time, and carried sails by the British Banks loft. 
Perspective view of the lines of Indulgence
Deck plan of Indulgence

At the time, the IOR was facing increasing criticism for being over-complicated in its concept, over-expensive in its application and for producing ratings that were sometimes unable to be repeated in subsequent measurements. But for the 1986 Three-Quarter Ton Cup, the inherent strength of the rule became evident on the basis of the number of entries (26 yachts from ten nations), with the top five boats coming from the boards of different designers, and the racing being as close as in a one design series.
Indulgence under construction at B&B, Trinite-sur-Mer (above and below)

So despite Indulgence's high powered crew and 'no expense' spared construction, she didn't have it all her own way, being pushed to the very end by the Niels Jeppesen designed production X-3/4 Ton Frontrunner, steered by sailmaker Ib Anderson, who's firm Diamond Sails also provided her sail wardrobe. This all Danish team, who also formed the backbone of Andelstanken's win in the One Ton Cup that year, were no strangers to the event having won in 1985 in Green Piece and twice before that in the X-3/4 Ton predecessor, the X-102.

Indulgence on her way to winning the 1986 Three-Quarter Ton Cup
Indulgence chases Frontrunner around a wing mark
Whilst Indulgence and Frontrunner were the most consistent fleet leaders, often by an enviable amount, there were three others who were not far off the pace. One of them, the new Humphrey's Decasol, skippered by David Howlett, at times looked like a possible candidate for second place overall. Decasol won the short offshore race but otherwise she took third place too often and that was where she finished overall, followed in fourth by German yacht Flurshaden, which had placed second in 1984 and third in 1985.

The Humphreys designed Decasol - third overall

Indulgence went on to race in the 1987 edition of the series, held in Nieuwpoort, Belgium (contested by 15 yachts from seven nations). She had been sold to an Italian yachtsman (skippered by Vittorio Codesca), but still showed plenty of speed one year on and her crew had high hopes of retaining the Cup. The regatta was held in a wide range of conditions, from mirror-like seas which saw yachts kedging in  the tide to a full gale in the short offshore race which ended in retirement for five yachts and damage on three others. 

Indulgence during the 1986 Three-Quarter Ton Cup

The first race was in light airs, and had to be shortened, and Indulgence V finished 7th, which would prove to be her best placing. The long offshore race was also shortened, prior to the start, simply by deleting the first and last marks from the course to reduce the distance from 240 miles to 190. This caught out a few navigators because they failed to cancel the last buoy's waypoint from their Decca sets. After a long and trying race in light airs, they sent their yachts off on a needless 24-mile leg only to come into the finish line from the wrong direction. One of the yachts was Indulgence, which had led at every mark, so the subsequent disqualification from the race was a huge disappointment, and essentially put her out of the running for overall honours.
Indulgence during the 1986 Three-Quarter Ton Cup
The Indulgence crew bounced back from their error by sailing a faultless third race, the second Olympic triangle. As before, she led the whole way round, ahead of second placed Ramasjang from Denmark. A consistent series thus far by Ramasjang saw them into the lead overall.
The winner of the 1987 Three-Quarter Ton Cup, Jelfi-X, passes behind team-mate Escapade (6th overall)
A lack of wind delayed the start of the short offshore race, and when it got underway it still took an hour to sail the mile to the first mark, where the fleet kedged to avoid being taken back to the start in the strong tide. But when the wind arrived it did so strongly, a Force 6-7 north-westerly which built into a Force 8 gale. Series leader Ramasjang was soon dismasted when her backstay failed. Race leader Prudential Bache was under pressure from Indulgence V who was threatening as night fell. But her series came to an end when her mast collapsed without warning. The latest X-3/4 Jelfi-X (representing the Netherlands) took up the running to stake her claim to the series, and a third in the final race secured the Cup. Indulgence V, forced to retire from the short offshore and unable to start the last race, finished 13th overall.

Sources for this article are based on articles held on the Histoire des Halfs website (where you can read more articles in French) and Sailing Year (1987-88)